Functional groups are the characteristic groups in organic molecules that give them their reactivity. In the formulae below, R represents the rest of the molecule and X represents any halogen atom.

Hydrocarbons Halogen-containing groups -containing groups -containing groups -containing groups Phosphorus-containing groups

H H O O O R1 R2 O O R1 C C R2 C C 1 C C 2 R C C C R R R X R OH C C 1 O 2 3 4 1 2 R R H H R R R H R R R OH

ALKANE ARENE ACID ANHYDRIDE Naming: -ane Naming: -ene Naming: -yne Naming: -yl Naming: halo- Naming: -ol Naming: -al Naming: -one Naming: -oic acid Naming: -oic anhydride e.g. ethane e.g. ethene e.g. ethyne e.g. ethyl benzene e.g. chloroethane e.g. ethanol e.g. ethanal e.g. propanone e.g. ethanoic acid e.g. ethanoic anhydride

O O O O O O O R1 C C 2 N 3 R N C C 1 2 R R1 R C R N+ R C N N+ 1 2 R R 3 4 2 – O O – R X R OR R R R R NH2 O O R O

ACYL HALIDE NITRITE NITRO Naming: -oyl halide Naming: -yl -oate Naming: -oxy -ane Naming: -ene oxide Naming: -amine Naming: -amide Naming: -yl nitrate Naming: -yl nitrite Naming: -nitrile Naming: nitro- e.g. ethanoyl chloride e.g. ethyl ethanoate e.g. methoxyethane e.g. ethene oxide e.g. ethanamine e.g. ethanamide e.g. ethyl nitrate e.g. ethyl nitrite e.g. ethanenitrile e.g. nitromethane

R3 R1 N N O N N O N O R N+ R C N R2 S S R2 – R C 1 N R SH 1 2 1 S R O C N N O R R R R R1 R2 R2 R3

NITROSO AZIDE Naming: - Naming: -imine Naming: -imide Naming: -yl azide Naming: -yl cyanate Naming: -yl isocyanate Naming: azo- Naming: -thiol Naming: sulfide Naming: disulfide e.g. nitrosoethane e.g. ethanimine e.g. succinimide e.g. phenylazide e.g. methyl cyanate e.g. e.g. azoethane e.g. methanethiol e.g. e.g. dimethyl disulfide

O O O O O O O O S S S N P 3 S S S S S R2 R C R C C C R1 R R1 R2 R1 R2 R OH R OH R1 O N S R H R1 R2 R2

SULFOXIDE SULFINIC ACID SULFONATE ESTER Naming: Naming: sulfone Naming: -sulfinic acid Naming: -sulfonic acid Naming: -yl sulfonate Naming: thiocyanate Naming: isothiocyanate Naming: -thial Naming: -thione Naming: phosphane e.g. e.g. dimethyl sulfone e.g. benzenesulfinic acid e.g. benzenesulfonic acid e.g. methylmethanesulfonate e.g. ethyl thiocyanate e.g. ethyl isothiocyanate e.g. ethanethial e.g. propanethione e.g. methylphosphane

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