7th Grade Handout Owensville Community School

Renaissance The was a that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the 1400’s. Beginning in , and spreading to the rest of by the , its influence was felt in , , art, , politics, , , and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Important during the renaissance included , Buonarroti, Sanzio and .

Baroque is a period of artistic that emphasized movement, contrast, and variety which produced , tension, exuberance, and grandeur in , , , literature, , and music. The style began around 1600 in , Italy and spread to most of Europe. Important artists during this period include , , and Rubens.

Realism The Realist movement in art flourished from about 1840 until the late 1800’s, and sought to convey a truthful and objective vision of contemporary life. was based on direct observation of the modern world. Often, Realists painted in gritty detail the present-day existence of humble people. Important artists of this period include , George Caleb Bingham, and Jean François Millet.

Impressionism is a 19th-century that originated with a group of -based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870’s and 1880’s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, and emphasis on accurate of light and its changing qualities on ordinary subject matter. Impression artists included , , and Pierre Auguste Renoir.

Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionists rejected the limitations of Impressionism. They continued using vivid , often thick application of , and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary . Important artists of the Post- Impressionist movement include , Paul Cézanne, and . Note: In 2011, Cézanne’s, “The Card Players”, was sold for $259,000,000.00. (it was reportedly purchased by the Royal Family of Qatar).

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Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture and inspired related movements in music, literature, and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the . In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form. Instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Important artists of the Cubist movement include, Fernand Léger, and co-founders of the movement, Pablo and .

Surrealism Begun in the 1920’s, was an art movement that probed the subconscious world of , sometimes referred to as the art of self-discovery. Many thought that Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely, that the world of and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world. This movement continues to inspire creative works all around the world. Common themes in surrealism include: 1. Out of place objects 2. Unreal scenes 3. Normal objects abnormally 4. Fantastic Creatures Surrealist artists include , René Magritte, and Salvador Dali.

Regionalism is an art movement that began in the 1930’s in The of America. The artistic focus was by artists who shunned city life, and rapidly developing technological advances, to create scenes of rural life. Regionalist art works were meant to give people hope as the country tried to dig out of the . Many identified with the farmers, construction workers, and housewives in these artworks. Regionalist art was widely appreciated for its reassuring images of the American heartland. Grant , Thomas Hart Benton, and were the leaders of this movement.

Abstract is a post- II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put at the center of the , a role formerly filled by Paris. The term Abstract Expressionism is applied to work (mostly) in New York, which is neither especially abstract nor expressionist. Influential artists of this movement include , as well as , and . Note: In 2006, Jackson Pollock’s, “No. 5”, 1948” sold by Geffen to a private buyer for $140,000,000.00.

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Pop Art

Pop Art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950’s in Britain and in the late 1950’s in the United States. Pop art presented a challenge to traditions of by including imagery from popular such as , images and mundane cultural objects. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, and/or combined with unrelated material. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it. It is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism. Key artists of the Pop Art movement include , , and .

Op Art or Optical art is a method of painting or concerning the interaction between illusion and picture , between understanding and seeing. Op art works are abstract, with many of the better known pieces made in . When the viewer looks at them, the impression is given of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or alternatively, of swelling or warping. Famous Op artists include , , and . Hard-edge Painting

Hard-edge painting is a style of painting in which abrupt transitions are found between color areas. Color areas are often of one unvarying color. This approach to abstract painting became widespread in the 1960s, though California was its creative center. This type of painting features economy of form, fullness of color, neatness of surface, and the non- relational arrangement of forms on the . Famous Painters of this movement include , Kenneth Nolan, and . Photo-Realism is a movement in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible. Photorealism evolved from Pop Art and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism as well as in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s in the United States. Famous Photo-realists include , , , and the sculptor Duane Hanson.

Installation Art describes an artistic of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the of a . Installation art can be either temporary or permanent. Installation artworks have been constructed in exhibition such as and galleries, as well as public and private spaces. Installation art came to prominence in the 1970’s.

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7th Grade Handout Owensville Community School

Artists and Titles

1. Renaissance Michelangelo: David

8. Regionalism 2. Baroque Wood: Rembrandt: Watch

3. Realism 9. Abstract Expressionism Millet: Pollock: Autumn Rhythm

4. Impressionism 10. Pop Art Monet: 1916 Warhol: Campbell’s Soup Can

5. Post-Impressionism 11. Op Art Van Gogh: Riley: Movement in Squares

6. Cubism 12. Hard-edge Painting Picasso: Kelly: Green 1963

7. Surrealism 13. Photo-Realism Dali: Persistence of Memory Goings: Donut

14. Installation Art Skoglund: Radioactive Cats

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