For Text Page 2: Music in the Movies ( Magazine Award Winners) Filmfare Magazine Award Winners (The are the Indian “”) Year Best Picture Best Music Music Drector(s) 1953 Do Bigha Zameen Baiju Bawra 1954 Boot Polish Taxi Driver S.D. Burman 1955 Nagin Hemant 1956 Jhanank Jhanak Payal Baje Chori Chori Shankar-Jaikishen 1957 Mother Naya Daur O.P.Nayyar 1958 Madhumati Salil Chowdhary 1959 Sujata Shankar-Jaikishen 1960 Mughul-e-Azam Dil Apna aur Preet Parai Shankar-Jaikishen 1961 Jis Desh mein Ganga Behti Hai 1962 Saahib Bibi aur Ghulam Professor Shankar-Jaikishen 1963 Bandini Taj Mahal 1964 Dosti Laxmikant-Pyarelal 1965 Himalaya ki God mein Khandaan Ravi 1966 Guide Suraj Shankar-Jaikishan 1967 Upkaar Milan Laxmikant-Pyarelal

1968 Brahmachari Bhramachari Shankar-Jaikishan 1969 Aradhna Jeene Ki Raah Laxmikant-Pyrarelal 1970 Khilona Pehchaan Shankar-Jaikishan Things to Note: (1) Boldface type indicates years when the best movie had also the award-winning musical score. (2) The multiple awards of Shankar-Jaikishen and Laxmikant-Pyarelal, both phenomenally successful pair of music-producers. (3) Gharana and Khandaan both have musical titles, and may be films about musical people (both with music by Ravi (not Shankar!). For Activity 1.1, Text Pages 8-9, CD Track 2 (Jatis as Rhythmic Groupings)

Jātīs as Rhythmic Groupings No. of Beats Syllables Grouping 1 ta 2 taka 3 takita 4 takadimi 5 taka takita 2 + 3 6 taka takadimi 2 + 4 7 takita takadimi 3 + 4 8 takita takita taka 3 + 3+ 2 9 taka takita takadimi 2 + 3 + 4 For Text Pages 10-11 (Syllables for the Ten Thats [Scales])

Syllables for the Ten Thats (Scales) (with Reference to C-scale and Church Modes) Kalyān S R G M P D N S (Lydian) (C D E F# G A B C) Bilāwal S R G m P D N S (Ionian) (C D E F G A B C) Khammāj S R G m P D n S (Mixolydian) (C D E F G A B-b C) Kāfī S R g m P D n S (Dorian) (C D E-b F G A B-b C) Asāwarī S R g m P d n S (Aeolian) (C D E-b F G A-b B-b C) Bharavī S r g m P d n S (Phrygian) (C D-b E F G A-b B C)

No Western Equivalents Bhairav S r G m P d N S (C D-b E F G A-b B C) Todī S r g M P d N S (C D-b E-b F G A-b B C) Pūrvī S r G M P d N S (C D-b E F# G A-b B C) Mārwā S r G M P D N S (C D-b E F# G A B C) For CD Tracks 10-11, Dagar dhupad and bolbants in Rāg Todi (Guide to Dhrupad and Bolbānts)

Guide to Dhrupad and Bolbants CD Track 10 (dhupad) 0' 01" Drone, tablā, male voice #1 0' 15" Male voice #1 and #2, repeat of opening phrase 0' 23" Male voice #1, two new phrases 0' 48" Male voice #1 and #2, melodic lines intertwining 1'15" Male voice #1 and #2, return to opening phrase

CD Track 11 (bolbānts)

0’01" Male voice #1 on bolbānt, where text is mixed with rhythmic syllables (such as “vu-le”, “man-ne”) 0’13” Male voice #1 sings “gon-ne” in slower, emphatic tones 0’18” Male voice #1 and #2 on bolbānt (such as “vu-le”) 0’31” Male voice #2 sings “bon-ni” in slower, emphatic tones with tablā 0’48" Male voice #1 and #2 repeat opening phrase (graph of melodic contour) For Pages 57-59 (Rashif Khan Sings Rāg )

Rashif Khan Sings Rāg Bageshri [CD track 25 Mukhrā beginning barā khyāl] Downbeat (sam) of slow ektal, entry of tablā 0’21” End of mukhrā 1’32” Second cycle downbeat, end of fixed composition • Ektal unfolds so slowly that every quarter-beat (of the twelve) takes

approximately two seconds; thus one cycle of ektal requires 72 seconds

to transpire!

[Music 26 Jump ahead in performance to beginning of ma vistār]

0’54” Mukhrā (ornamented) ending this vistār of ma • Vocal techniques includes holding out ma without vibrato, for totally concentrated ma sound

[Music 27 Jump ahead in performance to high sa vistār]

1’04” Mukhrā ending sa vistār • Dramatic prolongation of high sa

[Music 28 Jump ahead to sārgām tān]

0’46” Mukhrā ending sārgām tān • Fast melodic passage using the names of notes, applying gamak (ornamental shake) to each tone. [Music 29 Jump ahead to beginning of chhotā khyāl in medium tīntāl] 0’25” Second line of chhotā khyāl * Tāl changes from ektal to tīntāl 0’51” End of fixed composition (bandish of chhotā khyāl) 0’57” Beginning of tāns (akār, “ah” tān) 1’19” Sārgām tān 1’23” Chhotā khyāl bandish (both lines) 1’40” Antarā in vistār style (high sa) ______Worksheets. The following are guides and charts, some of them noted as activities within the manual, which can be copied and distributed to students for their independent and small group work in class or at home. For Pages 22-24, CD Tracks 7-11, Alāp and Dhrupad

Alāp and Dhrupad

Worksheet: Match the definitions with the terms, placing the letter of the term next to the number of the definition.

1. _____ oldest currently performed singing style 2. _____ random ordering of vocal syllables 3. _____ introductory section of dhrupad 4. _____ section with rhythmic (but no metric pulse) 5. _____ section whose syllables are rapidly repeated 6. _____ powerful shaking ornamental style 7. _____ division of words in which a text is song text consists of rhythmic syllables 8. _____ vocal genre featuring rhythmic syllables medium jor a. alāp

b. bolbānt c. dhrupad d. tarVna e. gamak f. nom-tom

g. fast jor Design the sequence of events which unfold in the performance of dhrupad, giving descriptions and using terms as necessary to describe these events. Listen again to Music 7-11 to recall and check your design.

______/ ______/ ______/ ______/ ______/ Event (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Music (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) For Page 21, Activity 2.1: Vikriti Patterns

Vikriti Patterns

Worksheet: Vikriti (“crooked”) patterns reorder the syllables of the Vedic chant in a way that the meaning becomes completely lost in a mathematical permutation of syllables. The purpose of the vikriti is to memorize the complex syllables of the sacred hymns, poetic descriptions of the gods and nature, rituals, and blessings by singing them in a precise ordering according to a Brahmin system of sequences. Chant aloud or write the simple English-language phrases, reordering the syllables in one or more of the following patterns: Krama, in which syllables are reordered 1-2’ 2-1, 2-3’ 3-2….etc. Jatā, in which syllables are reordered 1-2’2-1’1-2, 2-3’3-2’2-3….etc. Ghana, in which syllables are reordered 1-2’2-1’1-2-3’3-2-1’1-2-3, 2-3’3-2’2-3-4’4-3-2’2-3-4….etc. (1) “Simple Simon met a pieman”

(2) “Four score and seven years ago”

(3) “Don’t step on the crack”

(4) “A stitch in time saves nine”

(5) Choose your own phrase! For Page 28: Navaras—The Nine Moods

Navaras—The Nine Moods

Worksheet. In music, dance, drama, and the visual arts (including painting, sculpture, photography, and films, the navaras (or nine moods) are expressed. Find examples in the arts of India or elsewhere in the world where these moods are artistically represented. Name the pieces, performance events, or objects, and the artist-creator to whom it is attributed.

Navara (Mood) Artistic Expression Artist-Creator Karuna (sadness) Shringār (love, joy) Vira (heroism) Hāsya (laughter) Raudra (anger) Bhayānaka (fear) Vibhātsa (disgust) Adbhuta (surprise)

Shānti (peace)


For Page 63, Figure 5.6, CD Track 42, Listening Guide for Ghazal sung by Jankibai

Ghazal in Rāg Bhairavi: A Guide

Worksheet. Listen to CD track 42, Ghazal in Rāg Bhairavi, as sung by Jankibai. Do not consult with the guide in the book but allow your ears to lead you to determining the musical form. Use letters to refer each stand-alone section of the ghazal, writing them in the blanks below. To the right of the letter, comment on what you are hearing. (Hints: the selection is just two minutes in length, and there are five sections--several of which are repeated. Section (Letter) Descriptive Commentary ______


_____ For Pages 85-88, Some Views from an Old Master

Some Views from an Old Master

Worksheet. The renowned sarodist Ali Akbar Khansahib not only teaches his instrumental repertoire, techniques, and style to his students but also his philosophical views of what makes music and musicians. Explain or interpret several selected phrases, below, as they are relevant to your own sense of music-making. 1. “A musician has to begin from a feeling of humility….”

2. “They (students of music” must know that they are working for a good cause in their life…”

3. “…music is like a prayer….”

4. “…one day it (the music) will come up again….”

5. “….keep the music pure….”