World War I: 1914-1918
• Entry Task: Discuss facts/anything that you already know about WWI. • Announcements: – 5th period - new seating chart – Imperialism Quiz Review - Corrections due tomorrow! – 47-52 = A 41.5-46.5 = B – 36.5-41 = C 31-36 = D
MILITARISM ALLIANCE SYSTEM
IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM WWI Overview • Called “The Great War” or “War to End all Wars” until WWII • 65 million people mobilized for war: – 20 million wounded – 9-10 million killed in battle – 20 million civilians died – hunger/disease • First war to: – use inventions/progress from the Industrial Revolution (Modern War) – Introduce/really use new weapons, such as machine gun, poison gas, tank, airplane WWI Overview, continued… • War of attrition: characterized by TRENCH warfare (a muddy, bloody mess!) • 1914: famous Christmas Truce • 28 nations involved in War – 4 Empires fall (Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) • 1917: Russian Revolution (created the Soviet Union – Bolshevik (Communist) government) • Armistice: Nov. 11 at 11am, 1918 • Germany is blamed for the War – has to pay reparations ($31.5 billion) to Allies • War coincides with the “Spanish influenza” 1918- 20 (estimated 50 million people died!!!) Europe during the war The Allied Powers The Western Front The Eastern Front
Americans in the Trenches Major Problem of the War on Both Sides: New Weapons Old Tactics World War I Casualties
American losses = 116,708 Last American WWI Veteran • Frank Buckles, aged 110, died on February 28, 2011 • Joined the US Army in 1917 at 16 (lied about his age) • 4.7 million Americans fought in the Great War 1917-1918 • The last living veteran of WWI died in Feb 2012 (aged 110). How was WW1 a “world war”?
Algerian soldiers in Europe during World War I. The Japanese fleet off the coast of China in 1914. Japan sided with the United Kingdom and its allies, attacking German interests in the Pacific, including island colonies and leased territories on the Chinese mainland. British troops landing to assist Japanese troops in capturing Tsingtao from Germany, in 1914 General Kamio, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Army at the formal entry of Tsingtao, December, 1914. The Germans had surrendered after a two-month-long blockade and a week-long siege, suffering the loss of 200 men. 4,700 German prisoners were sent to internment camps in Japan, remaining there for nearly six years. The reading of a proclamation at the Tower of David in Jerusalem, December 11, 1917 -- two days after the Ottoman Army had surrendered and handed the city over to Allied troops. Cameroon-Company in German Southwest Africa during Word War I Annamese (French Indochinese) soldiers clean their guns in the district of the Marne. Indian soldiers who served during World War I in France. 1915 A military camp for Australian soldiers in Egypt, during WWI A Multi-Front War Why were the Americans crucial for the Allies? • Fresh troops • Added supplies • Food resources • Morale building • Latest technologies • 18 months- the war is over! Causes of World War I MANIA or MAIN
M ilitarism – policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war
Alliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
N ationalism – pride in or devotion to one’s country
I mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politically A ssassination – murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand World War I: 1914-1918
• Entry Task: Grades have been updated! Please take a moment to check. • Announcements: – Quiz Corrections due today! – Imperialism Quiz Scores: – 47-52 = A 41.5-46.5 = B – 36.5-41 = C 31-36 = D
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
Germany 73% Militarism
• Germany competing with UK to build battleships; the British feared an attack on their Empire • Germany competing with Russia and France to expand armies – Germany – 3.8 million – France – 3.5 million – Russia – 4.4 million
1914 Britain: 49
Germany : 29
Causes of World War I - Alliances
Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Great Britain Germany
Russia Italy A good example – the “Grandmother of Europe” - British Queen Victoria, who had 9 children, was: -Tsar Nicholas II’s Aunt -Kaiser Wilhelm II’s Grandmother -Grandchildren occupied the thrones of 8 countries!
http://ww1.canada.com/interactives/royal-cousins/ Nine European Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII in May of 1910, four years before the war began. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria, King Manuel II of Portugal, Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire, King George I of Greece and King Albert I of Belgium. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King- Emperor George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
Within the next decade, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Ferdinand's empires would engage in bloody warfare with the nations led by King Albert I and King George V. The war was also a family affair, as Kaiser Wilhelm II was a first cousin to King George V, and an uncle to King Albert I. Of the remaining monarchs pictured, over the next decade one would be assassinated (Greece), three would keep their nations neutral (Norway, Spain, and Denmark), and two would be forced out of power by revolutions. Entente Cordiale – France and England 1904 Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) attempted to break up peace •Cartoon: German perspective World War I: 1914-1918
• Entry Task: Grades have been mostly updated! I will have them all ready by the end of the period (so check then, please :) • Announcements: – Quiz Corrections due today! – Imperialism Quiz Scores: – 47-52 = A 41.5-46.5 = B – 36.5-41 = C 31-36 = D
Germany, Austria- England, France, & Hungary, & Italy made Russia made up the up the Triple Alliance Triple Entente Causes of World War I - Nationalism
Pan-Germanism - movement to unify the people of all German speaking countries
* = German speaking country
Nationalism – 2 kinds
• The desire of subject people to gain independence • The desire of nations to gain dominance and prestige
Causes of World War I - Nationalism
Pan-Slavism - movement to unify all of the Slavic people Imperialism: European conquest of Africa: Causes of World War I - Imperialism Causes of World War I - Imperialism Economic & Imperial Rivalries
Causes of World War I - Assassination
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia. Causes of World War I - Assassination • Group Suspected: BLACK HAND – military secret society in Serbia. Objective: Unite all territories with South Slav populations in territories annexed by Austria-Hungary. Details: June 28, 1914 (Serbian National Holiday)
• There were 7 assassins ready: including Gavrilo Princip, Nedjelko Cabrinovic (suffering from tuberculosis – going to die soon!) – they had revolver, bombs, cyanide • Royal Party Headed to City Hall on Appel Quay • At 10.15. Cabrinovic hurled a bomb at the car (2 were seriously wounded, but not Franz Ferdinand) – assassin swallowed cyanide and jumped in the river but was arrested and lived • On the way to the hospital, the driver turned: "What is this? This is the wrong way! We're supposed to take the Appel Quay!". • Gavrilo Princip was standing on the corner (6) • Franz Ferdinand was hit in the neck and Sophie von Chotkovato in the abdomen. • "Sophie dear! Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" • Princip tried to shoot himself, but was arrested by police. Causes of World War I - Assassination
Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia.
Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. · example of Pan-German nationalism (blank cheque)
Russia pledged their support for Serbia. · example of Pan-Slavic nationalism The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Germany declares war on Russia.
France pledges their support for Russia.
Germany declares war on France.
Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.
Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany. Allied Powers: Central Powers: Germany Great Britain
France Austria-Hungary World War I
Russia Ottoman Empire
Italy Allied Powers: Central Powers: The “Big Three” at Versailles: – Britain: David Lloyd George – France: Georges Clemenceau – US: Woodrow Wilson 25-yr old Adolf Hitler, Austrian in Munich Germany did not want to fight a two front war against France and Russia