: American , and Anti-Transcendentalism

Romanticism: 1. Time period: early to mid 1800s.

2. Brought about as a reaction to the Age of Reason and the strict doctrines of Puritanism (very strict religious beliefs and practices in America from 1600-late 1700s)

3. Major themes or characteristics of Romanticism: importance of the , values the imagination, and emotional side of human rather than rational (logical) side of human nature. Some writers had a fascination with the supernatural. Writers had an optimistic outlook.

4. The natural world was glorified.

5. Famous Romantic writers: (“,” “”) Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (“A Psalm of Life”), Poet (“Thanatopsis”), and novelist James Fennimore Cooper (created the frontier‟s man character; Last of the Mohicans).

Washington Irving Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Transcendentalism: (An optimistic offshoot of Romanticism)

1. Time period: mid 1800s to late 1800s.

2. A that „transcendent forms‟ of exist beyond reason and .

3. Values intuition as a means of gaining this higher truth.

4. Communing with nature made possible an intuitive connection with the entire universe.

5. This connection with all: , mankind, the natural world was known as the Universal Oversoul. All living things could tap into this .

6. Valued non-. 7. Major writers of the time: (“Self-Reliance”), ( and “”) and ().

Henry David Thoreau Walt Whitman

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Anti-Transcendentalism or Gothic (A pessimistic offshoot of Romanticism)

1. Time period: mid 1800s to late 1800s.

2. Known as the Dark Side of Individualism.

3. The focus on the imagination in Romanticism led to a focus on the demonic, the and the insane for the Gothic.

4. Gothic writers took a pessimistic view of humans and saw the potential for evil in all people.

5. „Essential ’ about life were found in extreme situations or the darker side of human nature (greed, betrayal, fear, etc.).

6. Major writers: (“” and “Fall of the House of Usher”) and (“The Minister‟s Black Veil”).

Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne

7. Gothic lives on: Southern Gothic (, “A Rose for Emily” and Flannery O’Connor “A Man is Hard to Find”), and contemporary writers (Anne Rice, Interview With A Vampire).